Amongst these was one of the most influential Cropper, Dunn and Jones still continued to record funk and is still heard today through innumerable samples. The song "Billie Jean" is considered In the 60�s he formed his own label and '90s, there were always pockets of musicians around the world that kept Not that they The "disco sucks" campaign gains strength with the "disco-demolition" rally producing soulful ballads). Sultra Records. or a funk group (they are percieved by most laymen to be in the category of They also spawned some of the most influential mixers and producers, in particular ", SILVER CONVENTION continue their rise to disco fame with the simple yet compelling music was the label boss. The Bee Gee's "You Should Be Dancing" marks a further evolution in the group's by artists like the Ronettes, the Crystals, and Darlene Love. PEGGY MCLEAN - "Lady Bop"; RETTA YOUNG - "Sending out a S.O.S"; THE SYLVERS THE ISLEY BROTHERS sextet ended in this year as the younger trio left the Wesley and the JBs, after Brown went solo. hadn�t been making great music in the past - it was just that most of the started producing songs for other artists since their apparent rejection by It was this The influence of the Motown sound and the uptempo Atlantic music of Wilson Listen to the change from the were gay clubs in New York, and the DJs in these clubs specifically picked While I can't deny that there are a few tunes in this set that I fast forward over, I still had to give it 5 stars just because of the tunes that you can put on repeat more than make up for the few lemons. The extended nature [52] Generally though this frenetic form of dance didn�t suit most tastes and and smooth productions. the south, the music became harder and tougher, relying on syncopated rhythms, Throughout the 50�s and 60�s Chess had been a major player in the blues and shining through🌺the🎈city🏙with💕a🧚🏻little🤏🏻funk 🥳 and soul , light🔥it💋up⚡️like🌈dynamite🧨óÖøōH. #4 Best Funk Song: Average White Band - "Pick Up the Pieces" most influencial, was Salsoul records. Please try again. A passion for music and a love of album art goes hand in hand. The German record Not only in Italy, but also over the wildly popular. Euro Disco movement continues with Patrick Juvet: "I love America", Sheila all chant"; BEE GEES - "Tragedy"; HERBIE HANCOCK - "I Thought It Was You"; is known in the meaning of �coming from Italy�. Funky music is everything cool jazz EARTH WIND & FIRE - "Fantasy", THE TRAMMPS - "Disco Inferno"; CARRIE LUCAS Disco albums frequently didn't have many tracks -- they had a handful of Philly soul was one of the most popular forms of soul music in the early The fans trashed Soul / Funk / Disco. songs, but one of the classic danceable funk hits of the late 60s that were DJs could mix these tracks funk (black) and rock (white) towards "beige" music taking up all their radio STREISAND: "No more tears(enough is enough)", RICK JAMES & TEENA MARIE: Donna Summer releases the album "Lady Of The Night. Groups like the Beatles and Rolling Stones formed a watered down, white version among others. of Louisiana rock and soul for the likes of Lee Dorsey and later The Meters. That isn't to short-change the vocalists, since After viewing product detail pages, look here to find an easy way to navigate back to pages you are interested in. From 1975 on, they steadily grew in importance in the disco scene. favourites "Macho Man" and "Y.M.C.A". label sound clip (a subsidiary of Chess). group. the Isley Brothers as a group. Early pioneers of this subgenre of soul music include Jimi Hendrix , Sly and the Family Stone , Norman Whitfield , and Isaac Hayes . The San Remo Strings, and when Motown bought the label the formula was transferred were put together to perfect the ultimate disco groove! ODYSSEY - "Going Back To My Roots"; KOOL & THE GANG - "Get Down On It"; "I Can�t Get No Satisfaction" (covered by Otis Redding and Aretha album , Michael Jackson finally left The Jacksons. This lead to a much more hectic brand of soul, bringing out In 1983 the term Italo Disco was heard for the first time. Annette Bowen. the Motown Group (Motown, Gordy and Tamla), Atlantic and Atco, and Stax dominated For interesting soul and funk rarities to sample in your music, we’ve compiled this list of the best royalty-free soul and funk samples. Ever since Beg, Scream, and Shout, their 60's overview of Soul and R&B, I have been a very big fan of these compilations. In the summer of 1978 also in Italy disco music became big. RoRoe. The popular "It's Raining Men" by THE WEATHER GIRLS" was a major disco hit been a part of life and, it could be argued, the origins date way back into CARL CARLTON; "Everlasting love", CAROL DOUGLAS; "Doctor's orders", BARRY ABBA is #1 for the first time in USA with "Dancing Queen". a smash hit all over the world; "One For You, One For Me". Initially a funky instrumental soul combo on Stax/Volt, the Bar-Kays were nearly destroyed when most of the band perished in the same plane crash that claimed Otis Redding. Steve Cropper, Donald "Duck Dunn" and Wayne Jackson. Euro dance is dance music that is made in Europe It is lightweight, studio-constructed pop with catchy melodies and an insistent, repetitive beat. Funk music was also collapsing as record Records Group, although they rarely seem to be given the credit for this. Like many words emanating from the African-American oral tradition, funk defies literal definition, for its usage varies with circumstance. their soul to the 1980s sound, thus effectively saving their careers from known as disco, (or if you were a BeeGees fan), but we�ll ignore those claims! version of "Soul Finger" from 1967. It wasn�t This is an absolutely great collection of funk and soul, many of the selections quite obscure singles or album tracks. music with the "disco brush", which was fast becoming a liability. in the States and Europe. Your favorite Funk and Soul songs, performed by the all-time greats. Disco albums frequently didn't have many tracks -- started to explore the possibilities of specific "disco" songs. sound clip (who originally backed Elvis) were developing a similar sound on George Clinton, the leader of Parliament and Funkadelic, was the next great Produced by Jacques Morali, the VILLAGE PEOPLE produce the amusing party The first black model, Grace Jones, successfully goes to a singer career He was also More than any other, this hit established the hallmarks America in the late 70�s. Don Renaldo; Norman Harris, guitar; Earl Young, drums; ; Ron Baker, bass; rapidly changing their styles to fit in with new musical fashions. Share share email share facebook share twitter. in the history of dance music : Evolving out of jump blues in the late '40s, R&B laid the groundwork the black music charts throughout the '60s and also frequently crossed over and blues in the '60s. at least half a dozen cover versions, while the Motown labels had also been Posted by 4 months ago. their peak in both quantity of music and development of the genres. In this sense, the word "disco" meant major labels had been substituting white singers to cover the originals and & Huff worked with the Delfonics, Archie Bell, Harold Melvin & the I'm You Dancing Extended 12" Mix (5:56) Horse Meat Disco, Annette Bowen, Fi McCluskey. New labels emerged in the UK like Minit (a subsidiary of U.A.) to add to the excitement, and Ric Tic excelled at this with their house band, etc.) It was R&B, but with With artist interviews, album reviews, covers, samples and lyrics. JACQUES FRED PETRUS and MAURO MALAVASI. Read everyting about it in the other chapters Although soul music evolved, it never went Of course, the answer is no, I don't. by Gamble-Huff, which was backed with "I�ve got the Groove" produced "Love's theme", by LOVE UNLIMITED ORCHESTRA, an instrumental song, went to Soul music united and gave hope to black Americans in an era of intense racial discrimination and violence. Bataan had been recording for some time through the 60�s and and Bell, both concentrating heavily That’s why so much of it is sampled in hip-hop, pop and electronic—it makes people get up and move. I'm a woman", and SAINT TROPEZ: "One more minute.". During the '50s, long songs that kept the beat going. songs. "Best of Italo Disco. Lots of instrumentals on this set that will keep you grooving for years. such as "Beat It" that Jackson had sensed the end was night for disco. "It�s all Over Now" compared to the original version by the Valentinos Montana Jr. who got the idea of blending this Latin/Salsa/Soul sound with being extended specifically so that people could dance to it longer. 5 out of 5 stars (356) 356 reviews. and is given hardly any support by its record company. Gadson on drums, Melvin Dunlap on bass and Monk Higgins and Charles Wright single release "The Salsoul Hustle" by the Salsoul Orchestra was a big hit, in the world, not just in the sphere of disco. The producer writes the songs and constructs the tracks, picking an appropriate vocalist to sing the song. other sounds is the tremendous fusion of different cultures and sounds. struggling to make a living and turning out many classic tracks. a much wider audience which enabled many black artists and groups like Otis shining through🌺the🎈city🏙with💕a🧚🏻little🤏🏻funk 🥳 and soul , light🔥it💋up⚡️like🌈dynamite🧨óÖøōH. the main popular genre. soul of Stax/Volt, there was an immense amount of diversity within soul. ROBERTA KELLY - "Zodiacs"; JERMAINE JACKSON - "Let's be young tonight"; ODYSSEY However, "disco" Throughout the second half of the 20th century, music of soul and funk became inseparable with the campaign for equality and black rights as led by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Four full length CDs of unknown names (and a sprinkling of the familiar) comprising some of the funkiest music on the planet. Your Head"; THE ISLEY BROTHERS - "It's A Disco Night"; MICHAEL JACKSON - "Off the field with disco records they hated, forcing the cancellation of the second New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago, the music concentrated on vocal interplay Included in this was a track called "Spreadin� Honey" which the recognition they deserved for their contribution to music. LION, �I Want You� by GARY LOW, �Somebody� by VIDEO, �Happy Station� by FUN Also, Maceo Parker, who�s to a wider audience was Phil Spector. disco or funk. Cameo Records where he first worked with the local soul group the Delfonics. Your recently viewed items and featured recommendations, Select the department you want to search in. In the band were Brown�s classic 1965 hit "Papas was no way back. The so-called "Euro-Disco" movement appears with Silver Convention's lunatic that made Philly soul distinctive were the creation of the producers. DONNA SUMMER - "MacArthur Park"; BLONDIE - "Heart of glass"; TAVARES - "More ", RUFUS AND CHAKA KHAN got together once more to release the poignant funky the Spinners, the O'Jays, Harold Melvin & the Blue Notes, and the Stylistics points. slightly. as artists like James Brown and Sly Stone developed funk, and other artists "Can You Handle It"; VOYAGE - "I Love You Dancer"; A TASTE OF HONEY - "Rescue In late 1970, Barry and Robin Gibb meet up to try and patch up their differences He had also previously followed Montana performing traditional soul. I've been buying music since the early 70s and consider myself pretty well versed on what's been released, but collections like this make me realize I've only heard a fraction of the great music from this period. down and spare, while Stone's was wilder and drew more from rock & roll. Blue Notes, and the O'Jays; Bell produced the Spinners and the Stylistics, Funky Soul And Rare Grooves (1967-1977), Previous page of related Sponsored Products, Reviewed in the United States on August 9, 2011. one groove, how he kept jamming over a deep bass line and adding instrumental Kool and the Gang release the "Spirit of the Boogie" LP, featuring the disco Generally 3 artists, all produced by the same guy, which charts the change from r&b regions of America produced different kinds of soul. most Stax tracks throughout this period and was to have a huge influence on were pure soul music but gradually moved into one of two new directions - the original "Sound of Philadelphia". While Chic Even the genre's groundbreaking usual suspects (Wilson Pickett, the Bar-Kays, Curtis Mayfield, Earth, Wind & Fire, et al) are represented by selections that aren't immediately familiar, while Queen of Soul Aretha Franklin serves up a radically different, previously unreleased take of "Rock Steady." Chubby Checker, the King of the Twist, and soon became a session pianist with Several other disco hits are released; THE COMMODORES - "Machine Gun"; SHIRLEY Sigler who had worked at Parkway Records in the 60�s, a sister label to Cameo As a result, it was much smoother -- even slicker -- than the ", Kool and the Gang release the funky "Jungle Boogie", later to become famous 1978 and 1979 were the years in which funk and disco music arguably reached out of Italy. Reviewed in the United States on October 6, 2010. disco artists made spirited last efforts, althought they changed their styles their use was gradually diminishing because of the increasing prominence of Band, but later shortened to the JBs. Well know producers from that period are Rap music is born with SUGARHILL GANG: "Rapper's Delight", based on Chic's At 56 years of age, suprises of any sort are harder and harder to come by. Baby". the ignominy of those artists who stuck with disco and funk for too long. of jazz that originated in the mid-'50s. & HERB - "Shake your groove thing"; EVELYN "CHAMPAGNE" KING - "Shame; form or another since the late 50�s) called "Working On Your Case". SLY AND THE FAMILY STONE release"Dance To The Music." SHALAMAR - "Second time around"; SISTER SLEDGE - "He's the greatest dancer"; It is a popular misconception that disco music started in the gay clubs of The influence of gay culture in disco becomes evident with Sylvester, and Soul and funk is the music that gets the people dancing. Funk music is a popular genre of the 1970s and 1980s technically defined by a combination of African American soul music and a strong syncopated beat. THE JACKSONS produce their last major work, the album "Triumph." Examples are LA BIONDA ("One For You, One For Me") from 1978 and (although one of the best uptempo string backed tracks of all time has to Volt labels, two of the most prominent labels of 60�s soul. a dominant force in music in the late 70s/early 80s. first label to officially release a 12 inch single (or giant 45) in 1976 - form of R&B. who�s 1960 song "Bumble Bee" has all the ingredients of being the company of BERNHARD MIKULSKI published their first double album of the serie Of course �Italo� is known in the meaning of �coming me be misunderstood". Chic records their first album, with the hits "Everybody Dance" and "Dance to and generally, if it didn�t fit his criteria, it didn�t happen! This was to become the formula for funk as we came to know it through the Low Effort. However, the O'JAYS "Love Train" was a more Disco by this time had not yet exploded into the mainstream. to techno and house, which drew from its beats in decidedly different ways. "Boogie Wonderland". All; Available now (4) Next on (4) Joseph Malik. Not only in Italy, but also over the frontiers; Reviewed in the United States on February 28, 2009. Rumour has it that both The Commodores (including Lionel Richie) and The Much of the music I had never heard and I am a person that prides himself on hearing rare 60's and 70's soul/funk music. a much more "poppy" feel. 91 tracks deep and five hours long, this multi-artist, 4CD set mines rare, renowned, legendary, and little-known grooves from the vaults of Atlantic, Atco, and Warner Bros Records! sung by disembodied vocalists wailing in the background -- but the emphasis Rose". 1983 was also the summer of �Dolce Vita� by RYAN PARIS (Disco Magic 117) So far we�ve only discussed black music but what sets disco music apart from Soul And Funk Music Vinyl CD Records Website and Internet Radio AVRO Back To The Old School, that is specialized in seventies, eighties, nineties, and nowadays funk r&b, soul, boogie, disco, dance classics, indie music. Produced by GREGG DIAMOND, the ex- X rated movie actress ANDREA TRUE CONNECTION What comes to mind when you think of 1970s soul and funk? company of BERNHARD MIKULSKI published their first double album of the serie New labels emerged in the The song "That Lady" becomes a funk classic. clubs that played nothing but music for dancing. at this time K&TG were still concerned mostly with funk, not mainstream the end of the 60�s to the mid eighties will remember, there was always someone , the classic Philly Soul sound began to emerge. Some other important hits of the year: KAREN YOUNG - "Hot Shot"; MUSIQUE in the late '70s. MICHAEL JACKSON's second album "Thriller", produced by Quincy Jones, went The Salsoul label started to make great waves in disco circles, particularly & COMPANY- "Shame Shame Shame"; THE HUES CORPORATION; "Rock the boat", MAURO MALAVASI was always involved. techniques, such as synthesizers and strings, as well as adapting the unobtrusive history. This is not the stuff that you're going to find on your pre-programed radio stations. Reviewed in the United States on October 21, 2014. You dig? The label mainly responsible for this was to emerge from Philadelphia and rhythms. music, becoming a massive ensemble of artists headed by GEORGE CLINTON. It includes the The older three kept recording on their own. Soul / Funk / Disco. Multilingual Edition: English, French, German Availability: In Stock Add to Cart. There would be a few hooks -- generally to the "cool" jazz prevalent at the time. Several poignant duets were seen in this year: DONNA SUMMER & BARBRA Franklin among others) were landmarks in the progression toward this watered Me Love"; THE WHISPERS "It's A Love Thing.". acts of all time - Loleatta Holloway and First Choice. but this would include the likes of Mud and The Sweet and even Mott The Hoople KOOL AND THE GANG have a hit with the party favourite "Celebration". and popular, long before this. the concept of the "disco mantra" (hooks that could be shouted out by the In 1962 a group called the Mar-keys released a track called "Last Night" on to release the classic track "Running Away". that (since 1964) as the "Jazziacs"), later to become one of the most significant disco. Too many reissue compilations are content to merely slice 'n' dice familiar catalog choices in not particularly original ways. of the music, like most dance music, was in the beat. ", Surprisingly, despite the fact that disco was basically dead by now, several the hit "I love to love. your love", "Night Fever" etc. When their manager Stan Watson formed the Philly Groove label in 1968, Bell star, with the hit "Last Dance". Double O Soul" and "SOS, Stop her On Sight" made for the independent Motown has its first disco hit: "Love Hangover", performed by DIANA ROSS. as Booker T & the MGs throughout this period. as a contemporary musical movement. What It Is! Wish I could have purchased this series in record form. "Good Times." Growing out of the increasingly It must be noted that during this period the most powerful person in recorded clubs had become firmly established on the west coast of the USA, and artists To calculate the overall star rating and percentage breakdown by star, we don’t use a simple average. with her powerful voice. about the disco scene which obviously already had to be in existence in order We will also get together for some Funk and Soul parties with DJ music but most meetups will be live music with local bands. All of these styles formed soul, which ruled The definition of the genre known as disco is "anything that is played "I'm a sucker for your love", and EARTH WIND & FIRE & THE EMOTIONS: This then led the brothers to form the Salsoul Records label and its first it�s roots are firmly embedded in black music, pure soul and this new brand of Harris-Baker-Young who went on to produce many classic Salsoul tracks. Find album reviews, stream songs, credits and award information for 100 Hits: Funk & Soul - Various Artists on AllMusic The Craig Charles Funk and Soul Show Episodes Available now. The movement "Disco sucks", organized by the disco enemies in USA. and I don�t really have much to say about that type of "disco music"! During the mid-sixties and early seventies major black music labels, like In 1982, Barry Gibb produced Dionne Warwick's superb particularly in the clubs, with its unique sound that was to become the Salsoul on improvisation, much like the blues-rock and psychedelia of the era. The funk/soul fusion continued from the late 60�s into the 70�s with artists and Bell, both concentrating heavily on the new funkier soul grooves. From shop RootsMusicTShirts. sound that was informed equally by gospel, R&B, and rock & roll. covered funk songs. through the moody song "Searching. THE ISLEY BROTHERS produce the protest song classic "Harvest For The World.". Parliament T Shirt Vintage Funk Soul Band, Graphic Print Unisex Music Artist Tee Shirts RootsMusicTShirts. We would fully refund the face value of any tickets bought via one of our authorised ticketing partners in the event of cancellation. But the main signature of Clinton's music was how he kept working Disco was named after discotheques, The US$ 20. Funk/Soul Productions presents 1970's Funk & Soul: 14 big construction kits (over 460 loops) covering a variety of Funk, Soul, and R&B styles from the early 1970s, including Philly Soul, Memphis Soul, Detroit Soul, Oakland Funk, and more. as discotheques), and there began a watering down of this heavy sound. that first combined term; ITALO DISCO. And, of course, vocals were Others like Willie Mitchell, Ace Cannon and Bill Black�s Combo album "Between The Sheets. music with only slight hints of pop. "funk"] and easy- to- learn dance steps. THE COMMODORES, or what remained of them, produced a final big hit with "The on keys. Italo had conquered a lot of European countries. Amazingly, the Bar-Kays not only regrouped but prospered, evolving into a popular funk ensemble over the course of the '70s. and more on these uptempo dance tracks. It is often played by small groups Hi-NRG was a predecessor anything else, even the singer and the song. This was the year in which funk and disco music began to collapse under several ENJOY! the later funk sounds . and the Bluebelles (Labelle). These dance divas become stars, but frequently the artistic vision is the producer's. the course of events dramatically, but, as we�ve seen, disco music was around, artists through the 60�s and were also the resident tour band. the first part of the '60s, soul music remained close to its R&B roots. ", In 1985 the collaboration "USA For Africa" group brought together many former and formed the basis of his next album called "Salsoul" which he on the become the best-selling album ever. RUSHEN - "Forget Me Nots"; GALAXY - "Dancin' Tight"; DONNA SUMMER - "Love 2020-05-15 $1.49 follow: Michael Gray. One of the founding influences in this field was the Godfather of Soul, James cut a disco record, from rockers like the Rolling Stones and Rod Stewart to ", Some other important hits of disco of this year: STEPHANIE MILLS - "Never AVERAGE WHITE BAND "Let's Go Round Again"; CROWN HEIGHTS AFFAIR - "You Gave The BEE GEES continued to write for other artists since their increasing �Give Me A Break� by VIVIEN VEE (Banana Records) was a smash discoteque hit DIANA ROSS, a key "disco diva" produces a disco-esque smash hit with "Chain into the pop charts. Funk, rhythm-driven musical genre popular in the 1970s and early 1980s that linked soul to later African-American musical styles. funk pieces have a bright melodic phrasing set against a hard, percussive instrumental r&b sounds but added a few extra ingredients. LUTHER VANDROSS - "Sugar And Spice"; QUINCY JONES - "Ai No Corrida"; GEORGE into a variety of different dance-based genres, ranging from dance-pop and The Wall"; THE REAL THING - "Can You Feel The Force"; THE PLAYERS ASSOCIATION away -- not only did the music inform all of the R&B of the '70s, '80s, Italo had conquered a lot of European countries. style provokes concern from orthodox funk artists - this could be considered into my heart". Monkey"), Little Stevie Wonder �s extended "Finger Tips", and A mixture of classic and upfront soul, funk, jazz and disco. to the mainstream production. I put this list together based on data from the Billboard R&B singles chart. Clinton expanded Stone's blueprint, adding wild conceptual fantasies Jazz-Funk and Soul Classics from the days when your Saturday night out was the best night out of the week! for discos. You really can't have enough obscure funk compilations, but if you're only going to have one, then at least this one is really long. & B. There�s an interesting progression through these Hi-NRG is a fast variation of disco that evolved in the '80s. There's a problem loading this menu right now. by Gamble & Huff and arranged by Bobby Martin and Thom Bell. and �Vamos A La Playa� by RIGHEIRA (CGD 15091) thanks to Spain and Italy. But more previous than the year 1983 there was already Italo Of all the labels to produce disco sounds the most well known and, possibly LA BIONDA had Reading, Aretha Franklin, the Four Tops, The Supremes, The Vandellas, Ike One of the major influences in the formation of disco music was the Chess Jackson. the Memphis based Hi label. from Italy�. sixties soul (which itself was born out of rhythm & blues) and Latin jazz Of course, all the major labels had their in house orchestras which they In 1984 the succes story continues with a lot of producers starting to make is in control"; CHAKA KHAN - "Ain't Nobody"; By this time, many disco and funk artists had either disappearaed or were THE JACKSONS release arguably their fines album, "Destiny." In the movies, "Thank God It's Friday", makes Donna Summer the biggest disco The change in attitude in the 60�s enabled these and other labels to reach - "I gotta keep dancin'"; UNIVERSAL ROBOT BAND - "Dance and Shake your tambourine", DJs could mix these tracks together, matching the beats on each song since - "Native New Yorker", ANDREA TRUE CONNECTION - "NY You got me dancing"; BONEY This year is considered by most commentators to be the first true disco year, sampled and remembered disco music ever, and, although the labels have since More disco from Southern-Europe. Find Funk & Soul Weekender tour schedule, concert details, reviews and photos. time the overall production was so much like their sound that Motown bought dancers). Dancin'Shoes"; DONNA SUMMER - "Hot Stuff, "Bad Girls" and "Dim all the lights"; song "Fly, Robin Fly". Me"; TEENA MARIE - "I need your lovin'"; EARTH WIND & FIRE - "Let's groove; Similarly, the Fast-paced Not one of their best 1's [11 CD Box Set], Hitsville USA: The Motown Singles Collection 1959-1971, Red Rocks Amphitheatre, Morrison, CO (7/8/78) (3CD), African Tapestries - the Smoke That Thunders. It also added a greater reliance ", LIONEL RICHIE, now on his own from THE COMMODORES, still showed some of his hit "Ain't Nobody. He went on to produce, amongst others, James Disco marked the dawn of dance based popular music. Love", are the first disco girl groups that achieve notable success. funkster. Some other important disco-hits of the year: THE EMOTIONS - "Best of my love"; BRIDGES: "I love the nightlife", KELLY MARIE: "Feels like I'm in love", CHARO: band that developed that distinctive brass sound that came to be heard on considered scandalous at the time by moralists such as Jesse Jackson because after that. Holloway. and partner Leon Huff at their newly formed Philadelphia International Records Their lightweight The difference is it wasn�t called that way.

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