Le bombardement de Dresde eut lieu du 13 au 15 février 1945, selon les principes de la directive du ministère de l'Aviation du gouvernement britannique sur le bombardement de zone du 14 février 1942, devenue avec l'USAAF la directive de Casablanca (en) en 1943. Around 78,000 dwellings had been completely destroyed; 27,700 were uninhabitable, and 64,500 damaged but readily repairable. The Allies were aware of the effects of firebombing, as British cities had been subject to them during the Blitz. À 22h15, 800 bombardiers britanniques, avions descorte et de diversion convergeaient sur Dresde et larguaient des bombes incendiaires qui mettaient le feu à la ville dune extrémité à lautre. The death toll of 135,000 given by Vonnegut was taken from The Destruction of Dresden, a 1963 book by David Irving. [81] As a result, most people took shelter in their cellars, but one of the air raid precautions the city had taken was to remove the thick cellar walls between rows of buildings and replace them with thin partitions that could be knocked through in an emergency. The first was on 2 March 1945, by 406 B-17s, which dropped 940 tons of high-explosive bombs and 141 tons of incendiaries. I think these three reasons probably cover the bombing. At a press briefing held by the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force two days after the raids, British Air Commodore Colin McKay Grierson told journalists: First of all they (Dresden and similar towns) are the centres to which evacuees are being moved. D'autres considèrent que tous les moyens devaient être utilisés pour mettre fin le plus rapidement à la guerre et en définitive, épargner des vies humaines. Buy Le Bombardement de Dresde -DVD from Amazon's Movies Store. Churchill avait trouvé ça moche ! [152] He further argues there was a strong prima facie case for trying Winston Churchill among others and a theoretical case Churchill could have been found guilty. Ce plan, qui n'a jamais été appliqué tel quel, rejeté comme irréaliste[7] et « terroriste », conçu par les états-majors américain et britannique, proposait une intensification des bombardements jusqu'à 100 000 morts, pour saper définitivement le moral[8] des troupes allemandes. archive DRESDE OU LA MÉMOIRE BLESSÉE En deux jours, les 14 et 15 février 1945, RAF et Américains ont lâché 800 000 bombes sur la capitale saxonne. Amazon.ca - Buy Dresde Apocalypse at a low price; free shipping on qualified orders. [66][67] The remaining 115 bombers from the stream of 431 misidentified their targets. [e] Proponents disagree that Dresden had a military garrison and claim that most of the industry was in the outskirts and not in the targeted city centre,[154] and that the cultural significance of the city should have precluded the Allies from bombing it. To my mind we have absolutely no right to give them up unless it is certain that they will not have this effect. [83] Almost 200 factories were damaged, 136 seriously (including several of the Zeiss Ikon precision optical engineering works), 28 with medium to serious damage, and 35 with light damage. All these civilians' remains were burned to ashes".[162]. Les Alliés voulaient réduire à néant ce réseau de communication (opération Thunderclap) et ils voulaient aussi saper le moral des Allemands. DK’s største udvalg af designerlamper. 47 ("TB47") issued on 22 March the number of dead recovered by that date was 20,204, including 6,865 who were cremated on the Altmarkt square, and they expected that the total number of deaths to be about 25,000. "The Strategic Air Offensive against Germany" (SOA), HMSO (1961) vol 3 pp. La manière de considérer ces attaques aériennes varie selon le point de vue. Når diskussionen er blusset op igen, skyldes det tyskernes forståelige optagethed af deres egne lidelser under krigen og deres ønske om at blive accepteret som ligeværdige partnere i Europa. Buy Dresde Apocalypse DVD, Blu-ray online at lowest price in India at Amazon.in. Le bombardement de Dresde, lors de la Seconde Guerre mondiale et à un degré moindre, le bombardement de Hambourg en 1943 et le bombardement de Tōky ō, restent aujourd'hui encore controversés (bien que dans le cas du dernier, la décentralisation voulue des sous-traitants de l'industrie militaire ait été dévastatrice). I can never forget them. Il est possible aussi que les États-Unis et le Royaume-Uni aient voulu impressionner l'URSS : ce bombardement a eu lieu quelques jours après la clôture de la conférence de Yalta, et il aurait eu une force dissuasive sur Staline, dans le contexte naissant de la guerre froide. He writes that the bombing was the first time the public in Allied countries seriously questioned the military actions used to defeat the Germans.[102]. [b] This was a group of Lancasters from Bomber Command's 83 Squadron, No. With the city on fire everywhere, those fleeing from one burning cellar simply ran into another, with the result that thousands of bodies were found piled up in houses at the end of city blocks. The idea was that, as one building collapsed or filled with smoke, those using the basement as a shelter could knock the walls down and run into adjoining buildings. Le chercheur allemand Jörg Friedrich fait état de 40 000 morts[26]. [12] Some, mostly in the German far-right, refer to the bombing as a mass murder, calling it "Dresden's Holocaust of bombs". The Dresden bombings achieved the strategic objectives that underlay the attack and were of mutual importance to the Allies and the Russians. Free delivery on qualified orders. Bottomley's list included oil plants, tank and aircraft factories and the cities of Berlin and Dresden. What they were looking for was a big built-up area which they could burn, and that Dresden possessed in full measure. Dresde, qui regorgent de réfugiés fuyant l'avance des Soviétique, a déjà subi dans le passé deux bombardements, l'un le 7 octobre 1944, le second le 16 janvier 1945. I'm a historian. 125 relations. I know only one thing: that I must not burn. Development of a German political response to the raid took several turns. 1,0 sur 5 étoiles Dresde en toile de fond. Le 13 Février à 09h40 quand les Mosquitos commencèrent les plans de repérage à l'aide de fusées éclairantes, il y avait dans la cité environ 500.000 réfugiés. Alors que les pilotes de l'USAF ne connaissaient généralement pas la ville de Dresde, certains de la RAF connaissaient le caractère artistique et touristique de la capitale de l'ancien Royaume de Saxe (d'où son surnom « Elbflorenz » : la Florence de l'Elbe) concrètement illustré par les manufactures de porcelaine de Saxe, appelée en anglais « Dresden China ». Le bombardement de Dresde eut lieu du 13 au 15 février 1945, selon les principes de la directive du ministère de l'Aviation du gouvernement britannique sur le bombardement de zone du 14 février 1942, devenue avec l'USAAF la directive de Casablanca en 1943.Il détruisit presque entièrement la ville allemande de Dresde, dans le cadre d'un bombardement combiné en bomber stream. Pour son coprésident, Tino Chrupalla, le véritable bilan serait d'« environ 100 000 victimes »[30]. The phrase "worth the bones of one British grenadier" echoed Otto von Bismarck's: "The whole of the Balkans is not worth the bones of a single Pomeranian grenadier". Although the city had been sealed off by the Wehrmacht to prevent looting, Rudolph was granted a special permit to enter and carry out his work, as he would be during the Russian occupation as well. c) un document de 101 pages (Helmut Schnatz) sur les attaques de civils à la mitrailleuse depuis des avions à basse altitude, attaques dont la réalité est alléguée et non prouvée, aucune découverte archéologique de balles de calibre 50 -12,7mm- près de l'Elbe, par exemple, n'ayant été faite. Bacchus sur un âne ivre, œuvre de Georg Wrba[48]. On the morning of 14 February 431 United States Army Air Force bombers of the Eighth Air Force's 1st Bombardment Division were scheduled to bomb Dresden near midday, and the 3rd Bombardment Division were to follow to bomb Chemnitz, while the 2nd Bombardment Division would bomb a synthetic oil plant in Magdeburg. [167], The bombing of Dresden is a central theme in the novel Slaughterhouse 5 by Kurt Vonnegut who was a prisoner of war in 1945 in Dresden. The German army was retreating on all fronts, but still resisting strongly. [7] Even after the main firebombing, there were two further raids on the Dresden railway yards by the USAAF. [c][56] Wing Commander Maurice Smith, flying in a Mosquito, gave the order to the Lancasters: "Controller to Plate Rack Force: Come in and bomb glow of red target indicators as planned. [63] The mix of bombs for the Dresden raid was about 40% incendiaries—much closer to the RAF city-busting mix than the USAAF usually used in precision bombardment. Unusually, the map showing the route to the target was covered by a sheet. Les bombes classiques et à retardement furent aussi utilisées. [7], As far as Dresden being a militarily significant industrial centre, an official 1942 guide described the German city as "... one of the foremost industrial locations of the Reich," and in 1944, the German Army High Command's Weapons Office listed 127 medium-to-large factories and workshops that supplied materiel to the military. nécessaire]. Les diplomates allemands firent circuler dans les pays neutres des photographies des destructions, de morts et d'enfants grièvement brûlés. The raids became a symbol of the “terror bombing” campaign against Germany, which was one of the most controversial Allied actions of the war. [55], The sirens started sounding in Dresden at 21:51 (CET). [42] The city was at the junction of the Berlin-Prague-Vienna railway line, as well as the Munich-Breslau, and Hamburg-Leipzig lines. [147] Wing Commander H. R. Allen said, "The final phase of Bomber Command's operations was far and away the worst. Cette thèse est notamment défendue par Jacques Pauwels[10]. The report concludes with: The specific forces and means employed in the Dresden bombings were in keeping with the forces and means employed by the Allies in other aerial attacks on comparable targets in Germany. If, however it is also a startling one, this is probably less the result of widespread understanding of the nuance of international law and more because in the popular mind 'war criminal', like 'paedophile' or 'terrorist', has developed into a moral rather than a legal categorisation". [20] A special British Joint Intelligence Subcommittee report, German Strategy and Capacity to Resist, prepared for Winston Churchill's eyes only, predicted that Germany might collapse as early as mid-April if the Soviets overran its eastern defences. Rien n'indiquait un rôle militaire décisif pour cette ville ancienne, qui avait, pour cette raison, été épargnée pendant cinq ans. [18] One of the main authors responsible for inflated figures being disseminated in the West was Holocaust denier David Irving, who subsequently announced that he had discovered that the documentation he had worked from had been forged, and the real figures supported the 25,000 number. Frauenkirche: Exceptionnel - consultez 6 542 avis de voyageurs, 3 948 photos, les meilleures offres et comparez les prix pour Dresde, Allemagne sur Tripadvisor. We saw terrible things: cremated adults shrunk to the size of small children, pieces of arms and legs, dead people, whole families burnt to death, burning people ran to and fro, burnt coaches filled with civilian refugees, dead rescuers and soldiers, many were calling and looking for their children and families, and fire everywhere, everywhere fire, and all the time the hot wind of the firestorm threw people back into the burning houses they were trying to escape from. [143] The "hutted camps" mentioned in the report as military targets were also not military but were camps for refugees. The basket with our twins covered with wet cloths was snatched up out of my mother's hands and we were pushed upstairs by the people behind us. My mother covered us with wet blankets and coats she found in a water tub. Bomb the glow of red TIs as planned". The Foreign Secretary has spoken to me on this subject, and I feel the need for more precise concentration upon military objectives such as oil and communications behind the immediate battle-zone, rather than on mere acts of terror and wanton destruction, however impressive. L'United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) et la Royal Air Force (RAF) utilisèrent des bombes incendiaires notamment à la thermite [1], l'emploi du phosphore étant lui discuté. At 21:59 the Local Air Raid Leadership confirmed that the bombers were in the area of Dresden-Pirna. The second attack, three hours later, was by Lancaster aircraft of 1, 3, 6 and 8 Groups, 8 Group being the Pathfinders. I cannot forget these terrible details. ("German perpetrators are no victims!") He organized these as discrete series that he would always show as a whole, from the 52 woodcuts of. He asserted in Dresden im Luftkrieg (1977) that only a few tales of civilians being strafed were reliable in detail, and all were related to the daylight attack on 14 February. The intentions of the attack are to hit the enemy where he will feel it most, behind an already partially collapsed front, to prevent the use of the city in the way of further advance, and incidentally to show the Russians when they arrive what Bomber Command can do. Il détruisit presque entièrement la ville allemande de Dresde, dans le cadre d'un bombardement combiné en bomber stream. Du 13 au 15 février 1945 suivant le plan « Bomber Harris* » du boucher Harris les bombardiers de la Royal Air Force et de l’U.S. See reviews & details on a wide selection of Blu-ray & DVDs, both new & used. Far more than any other military action that preceded the actual occupation of Germany itself, these attacks left the German people with a solid lesson in the disadvantages of war. The second was on 17 April, when 580 B-17s dropped 1,554 tons of high-explosive bombs and 165 tons of incendiaries. It was estimated that at least 23% of the city's industrial buildings were destroyed or severely damaged. Suddenly, I saw people again, right in front of me. D'autres bombardements sur l'Allemagne (Berlin et Hambourg lors de l'opération Gomorrhe) furent aussi très meurtriers, mais celui de Dresde a plus profondément choqué les esprits, peut-être parce que la ville était davantage perçue comme une ville d'arts et de culture et qu'elle avait un intérêt stratégique moins important (ne pouvant justifier une attaque aussi lourde), d'autant plus que l'Albertstadt, le fort militaire de Dresde, n'a pas été bombardé. The raid was carried out through the normal chain of command, pursuant to directives and agreements then in force. Décryptage par l'historien britannique Keith Lowe. As one of the directors of the United States Strategic Bombing Survey, formed late in the war by the American Office of Strategic Services to assess the results of the aerial bombardments of Nazi Germany, he wrote: "The incredible cruelty of the attack on Dresden when the war had already been won—and the death of children, women, and civilians—that was extremely weighty and of no avail". D'accord avec l'article ? Les deux premiers raids de la RAF furent de 243 puis 529 Lancaster (bombardiers de nuit en raison de leur conception moins défensive – cible : ville « city area ») ; le troisième, le lendemain 14, par l'USAF, était de 316 B-17 (bombardiers conçus pour opérer de jour avec des défenses efficaces à bord, et avec précision – cible : triages « marshalling yards ») accompagné de 100 à 200 chasseurs ; le quatrième raid, le 15 février, de L'USAF, était de 211 B-17 – cible : triages[13],[14]. Il a été demandé au service des archives de la ville de Dresde en juin 2013 l'accès aux documents de travail, il a été répondu qu'ils sont bloqués pour trente ans, et les témoignages pour 80 ans. The Germans put him and other POWs to work gathering bodies for mass burial. It was a terrible lesson; conceivably that lesson, both in Germany and abroad, could be the most lasting single effect of the air war".[118]. But the Allies' firebombing of Dresden and nuclear destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were also war crimes – and as Leo Kuper and Eric Markusen have argued, also acts of genocide. The RAF also had an advantage over the Germans in the field of electronic radar countermeasures. The raid achieved the military objective, without excessive loss of civilian life. [84], An RAF assessment showed that 23% of the industrial buildings and 56% of the non-industrial buildings, not counting residential buildings, had been seriously damaged. In that sense it is an absolutely exemplary tragedy for the horrors of 20th century warfare and a symbol of destruction".[129]. He survived the bombing in a bunker beneath a slaughterhouse in Dresden. The fan-shaped area that was bombed was 1.25 miles (2.01 km) long, and at its extreme about 1.75 miles (2.82 km) wide. Le bombardement de Dresde du 13 & 14 Février 1945, a ,au bas mot causé 135.000 victimes. Proponents of this position argue that the devastation from firebombing was greater than anything that could be justified by military necessity alone, and this establishes a prima facie case. Cette tension politique éclipse les 25 000 victimes de la « tempête de feu », trois jours de bombardement au phosphore (du 13 au 15 février 1945) sur la Florence allemande, dont il ne restera plus que ruines. In response, Portal, who was in Yalta, asked Bottomley to send him a list of objectives to discuss with the Soviets. [71] Frederick Taylor in Dresden (2004), basing most of his analysis on the work of Bergander and Schnatz, concludes that no strafing took place, although some stray bullets from aerial dogfights may have hit the ground and been mistaken for strafing by those in the vicinity. [1] The bombing and the resulting firestorm destroyed more than 1,600 acres (6.5 km2) of the city centre. [92] Since 1989, despite extensive excavation for new buildings, no war-related bodies have been found. Après ceux d’Hiroshima et de Nagasaki, il s’agit du bombardement aérien le plus meurtrier de cette guerre. 17 juin 2019 - Découvrez le tableau "Dresde" de gerald sur Pinterest. are popular slogans among the so-called "Anti-Germans"—a small radical left-wing political movement in Germany and Austria. Marshall's tribunal declared that no extraordinary decision was made to single out Dresden (e.g. Dresden was also obscured by clouds, so the groups targeted the city using H2X. Le 28 mars 1945, Winston Churchill s'interrogea dans une note d'état major sur l'opportunité de ce bombardement[18]. [125], In 2003, a petition in support of reconstructing the Neumarkt area was signed by nearly 68,000 people, amounting to 15% of the entire electorate. There were 200,000 incendiaries in all, with the high-explosive bombs ranging in weight from 500 to 4,000 pounds (230 to 1,810 kg)—the so-called two-ton cookies,[52] also known as "blockbusters", because they could destroy an entire large building or street. "[146], According to historian Sönke Neitzel, "it is difficult to find any evidence in German documents that the destruction of Dresden had any consequences worth mentioning on the Eastern Front. [8] Critics of the bombing have asserted that Dresden was a cultural landmark while downplaying its strategic significance, and claim that the attacks were indiscriminate area bombing and not proportionate to the military gains. It is connected with German bands and Dresden shepherdesses. I do not know how many people I fell over. [68], Strafing of civilians has become a traditional part of the oral history of the raids, since a March 1945 article in the Nazi-run weekly newspaper Das Reich claimed this had occurred. Laurie.B. [7], During his post-war interrogation, Albert Speer, Minister of Armaments and War Production for the Third Reich, said that Dresden's industrial recovery from the bombings was rapid. Find Dresde Apocalypse at Amazon.com Movies & TV, home of thousands of titles on DVD and Blu-ray. Bombardement de Dresde - Le bombardement de Dresde eut lieu du au , selon les principes de la directive du ministère de l'Aviation du gouvernement britannique sur le bombardement de zone du , devenue avec l'USAAF la en 1943. 8 personnes ont trouvé cela utile. ...". ", "Bomber-Harris Superstar – Thanks from the red Antifa", and "Deutsche Täter sind keine Opfer!" [91] The city authorities did not distinguish between residents and refugees when establishing casualty numbers and "took great pains to count all the dead, identified and unidentified". [48], When Polish crews of the designated squadrons were preparing for the mission, the terms of the Yalta agreement were made known to them. His account relates that over 135,000 were killed during the firebombings. [140], In late July 1943, the city of Hamburg was bombed in Operation Gomorrah by combined RAF and USAAF strategic bomber forces. His book is not only good literature. It became more and more difficult to breathe. Some figures from historians include: 18,000+ (but less than 25,000) from Antony Beevor in "The Second World War"; 20,000 from Anthony Roberts in "The Storm of War"; 25,000 from Ian Kershow in "The End"; 25,000–30,000 from Michael Burleigh in "Moral Combat"; 35,000 from Richard J. Evans in "The Third Reich at War: 1939-1945". Read Dresde 1945 book reviews & author details and more at Amazon.in. Après ceux d’Hiroshima et de Nagasaki, il s’agit du bombardement aérien le plus meurtrier de cette guerre. Some business I'm in.[163]. [7], The second of the five points addresses the prohibition in the Hague Conventions, of "attack or bombardment" of "undefended" towns. A 120 kilomètres de là… Il y a 70 ans, Prague, victime collatérale du bombardement de Dresde | Radio Prague International Des estimations élevées se réfèrent souvent à des déclarations de témoins oculaires qui ne peuvent plus être réexaminées, ainsi qu'à des informations de sources aux motifs divers (parfois négationnistes) : Le bilan finalement admis est de 25 000 morts maximum (dont 18 000 corps identifiés), établi par une commission d'historiens dirigée par Rolf-Dieter Müller et mandatée par la ville de Dresde en 2004-2010[29]. [111] Under pressure from the Chiefs of Staff and in response to the views expressed by Portal and Harris among others, Churchill withdrew his memo and issued a new one. [115][116], John Kenneth Galbraith was among those in the Roosevelt administration who had qualms about the bombing. Le recensement des survivants restés sur place, selon le décompte du 30 avril 1945, deux mois après l'attaque, fait état de 368 519 personnes[21]. [109][110], Having been given a paraphrased version of Churchill's memo by Bottomley, on 29 March, Air Chief Marshal Arthur Harris wrote to the Air Ministry:[111], ...in the past we were justified in attacking German cities. La réalité a dû être encore plus dure. Une utilisation massive permet de provoquer un Feuersturm, un embrasement généralisé de l'air détruisant de larges surfaces, comme lors des bombardements stratégiques durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale en Allemagne et au Japon. In 1990, after the fall of the Berlin Wall, a group of prominent Dresdeners formed an international appeal known as the "Call from Dresden" to request help in rebuilding the Lutheran Frauenkirche, the destruction of which had over the years become a symbol of the bombing. The other groups all bombed Dresden between 12:00 and 12:10. Un historien comme Jörg Friedrich considère que les destructions des zones habitées par "Area Bombing" sont des crimes de guerre. He claims that Winston Churchill's decision to bomb a shattered Germany between January and May 1945 was a war crime. Apart from that, everything he says is true. [7] These factories manufactured fuses and bombsights (at Zeiss Ikon A.G.),[138] aircraft components, anti-aircraft guns, field guns, and small arms, poison gas, gears and differentials, electrical and X-ray apparatus, electric gauges, gas masks, Junkers aircraft engines, and Messerschmitt fighter cockpit parts. A 120 kilomètres de là… L'évaluation actuelle du nombre des victimes se situe autour de 35 000 morts (dont 25 000 corps identifiés)[2],[3]. Dresde était en 1939 la septième ville de l’Allemagne avec une population de 642 000 habitants. [15][16][17] The city authorities at the time estimated up to 25,000 victims, a figure that subsequent investigations supported, including a 2010 study commissioned by the city council. By this point in the war, the Luftwaffe was severely hampered by a shortage of both pilots and aircraft fuel; the German radar system was also degraded, lowering the warning time to prepare for air attacks. Exact figures are unknown, but reliable estimates were calculated based on train arrivals, foot traffic, and the extent to which emergency accommodation had to be organised. [145] McKee further asserts "The bomber commanders were not really interested in any purely military or economic targets, which was just as well, for they knew very little about Dresden; the RAF even lacked proper maps of the city. I wrote this book, which earned a lot of money for me and made my reputation, such as it is. Hence any assistance to the Soviets on the Eastern Front could shorten the war. Dead and dying people were trampled upon, luggage was left or snatched up out of our hands by rescuers. [7]

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